Formative Assessment

Activity 3: Formative Assessment

Printable Student View

  1. Why were songs and poems a good way to inform people about working conditions for children in the 1800’s?

    • People who couldn’t read could learn about the conditions
    • Children liked to sing about their conditions as they worked
    • Everyone knew the words to the songs and poem
    • Schools used these songs and poems in the classrooms
  2. Why were parents often shown in cartoons as sad as the factory owners took their children off to work?

    1. The children were not making enough money
    2. The children were learning at the factories and would soon leave them
    3. They felt sad that the children had to work to help support the family
    4. They wanted to go to work with the children.
  3. Why was it important to tell the public about working conditions for children in factories and mines?

  4. Explain how each of these showed child labor problems to the public?

    • Songs and poems
    • Written factual pamphlets
    • Cartoons
    • Testimony before Congressional Committees

Scoring Guide

Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:45+00:00

Formative Assessment

Activity 2: Formative Assessment

Printable Student View

  1. Why was it so difficult to get laws passed to ban child labor?

    1. Schools had little room for more children
    2. Laws would require factories to pay for health care for children
    3. Parents protested at mass demonstrations about the loss of wages
    4. Owners of factories said that the laws would interfere with their rights
  2. Why have abusive child labor practices become a problem in other countries of the world?

    1. Other countries do not care about children as much as we do
    2. Children have more time to work for a living in other countries
    3. Schools are part of the factories in other countries
    4. Children in some countries are part of a cheap labor force
  3. Explain two ways the pictures show child labor abuses.
  4. How is life of a child today better than a child who worked in the mines and factories in the 1800s? Explain your answer with examples.

Scoring Guide

Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:45+00:00

Activity 2

Activity 2

Essential Question

How were lives of children impacted by the industrial revolution?

Background

In the 1800s many children as young as nine or ten years old worked at full-time jobs in factories and coal mines. Often the work was hard and dangerous, and the children worked as long as twelve hours a day. Usually, the children went to work because they had to help support their families. Many people including their parents knew that these children should be in school, but economic necessity forced them to allow these abuses to continue.

Children working in coal mine, date unknown
-edited from http://www.dol.gov

This module is intended for upper elementary students with a basic understanding of United States history. Although it focuses on the industrial revolution in the United States and the conditions that created the movement for child labor laws, it also helps children see that many of these same conditions exist in many parts of the world today. Child labor is both a historical issue and a current global issue. And, as our world becomes more and more interdependent, global issues become national and local issues. The module is an opportunity to teach history in the context of geography and economics.

 

Instructional Strategies

Strategy 1

Computer Activity/Using Pictures to Teach Social Studies

Use this website or one like it to do this activity: http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/

Have the students first use their textbooks to find pictures of children in the workplace during this time period. Ask them how they would feel if they were working in similar conditions. Relate the pictures to the previous role-play situation.

Use the computers in your room or take the class to the computer lab. Have the students pull up the website and use a graphic organizer to compare and contrast the pictures that they see on this website

  • What similarities do they see in the pictures?
  • What differences do they see in the pictures?

Venn Diagram would be useful for this activity.

Use the four questions that follow both as purpose questions for viewing the pictures and as small group discussion questions.

Printable Student View

  1. What conditions made child labor a problem both in Great Britain and in the United States?
  2. How could pictures such as these lead to the passing of child labor laws?
  3. If you were a judge prior to 1930, would you be in favor of child labor laws or would you think that this was limiting the “personal freedom” of children to work? Would it limit the rights of factory and mine workers? If you said yes, explain in what way it would limit rights?
  4. Why does child labor remain a serious problem in many parts of the world despite the efforts of many people to combat it?

Check for Understanding

Ask the students to select one of the questions and to give a written response to it. Use the points brought up in the discussion as the basis for scoring the writing activity.

Scoring Guide

 

Strategy 2

Graphic Organizers

Use a graphic organizer (a Venn Diagram or a Comparison/Contrast Chart would work well) to help students make connections between what happened in Great Britain and United States and what is happening in third world countries today. Give the groups the opportunity to discuss the last two pictures. Have them look for similarities and differences and record them on a graphic organizer on a transparency. Share the Venn Diagrams with the entire class and encourage students to provide support for their conclusions.

 

Strategy 3

Problem-Solving Process

In small groups, have the students use a problem-solving process to suggest a tentative solution to the problem of child labor in third world countries. Ask them to call upon prior knowledge to:

  • Tell why there is a need for a solution to the problem
  • List some possible solutions to the problem
  • Think about the positive and negative consequences of each solution
  • Choose the best solution and be prepared to defend the solution

Have the students keep this information in their notebooks for future reference in completing the performance assessment for this module

Activity 2 2017-09-27T20:28:44+00:00

Formative Assessment

Activity 1: Formative Assessment

Printable Student View

  1. Why did many children work in factories and mines in the 1800s?
    1. Adults could not work as many hours as children
    2. The parents wanted to keep their children out of trouble
    3. Families needed the money that children could earn
    4. Children needed the money to help pay for school
  2. What was one problem that girls who worked in mills and boys who worked in mines both faced?
    1. They needed a lot of education to work in mills and mines
    2. They didn’t have as much time to do their homework
    3. Their families didn’t want them to work
    4. Their jobs in mills and mines were both dangerous
  3. Compare and contrast the work in the factories with the work in the coal mines? In what ways were they alike and in what ways were they different?

    ALIKEDIFFERENT
      
      
      
      
  4. Pretend that you are the parents of a girl working in a textile mill. Why would you be concerned about allowing your daughter to work at the mill? Be sure to discuss:

    • Working conditions were dangerous and unhealthy
    • Wages much lower than adults
    • Health concerns such as unhealthy air, dirty working conditions, bad lighting, and unsafe machinery
    • Education: No option to go to school

Scoring Guide

Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:44+00:00

Activity 3

Activity 3

Essential Question

Why was it necessary to pass laws to protect the lives of children in the United States and other industrialized countries?

Instructional Strategies

The three strategies of this activity will use Jigsaw, a cooperative learning strategy, to learn and teach about child labor. Each member of the home group will be assigned one of the following topics related to child labor:

  • The Campaign to End Child Labor
  • Songs for the Working Children
  • Political Cartoons and Cartoonists

Send the members of the group to their jigsaw expert group to develop expertise in this topic. The jigsaw expert group will answer the questions assigned to each of the topics and be prepared to teach the topic to their home group.

 

Strategy 1

The Campaign to End Child Labor

Reading Text Material

  • Have the students read The Campaign to End Child Labor. Give them a purpose question for their reading and review unfamiliar vocabulary terms prior to reading.
  • Tell the students to be prepared to discuss the Check for Understanding questions with their home group.

Printable Student View

The Campaign to End Child Labor

In 1900, approximately two million children were working in mills, mines, fields, factories, stores, and on city streets across the Untied States. The 1900 census, which counted workers aged 10 to 15 found that 18.2 percent of the country’s children between those ages were working. This census report helped to spark a national movement to end child labor in the United States. The National Child Labor Committee was founded in 1904.

This movement argued that it was morally wrong to subject children to this kind of abuse. In addition, they argued that children were losing their childhood. They compared child labor to slavery and said that this was as great a problem as slavery. The movement also said the industrial revolution was bringing progress in wealth, education, and increased leisure time. However, it was noted that poverty was increasing right along with this progress. It turned out that progress was creating huge fortunes for a few while the rest of society only received the crumbs from the table. The extent of child labor documented by the 1900 census was chilling evidence of the failure of technological progress to produce the American Dream of a better life for all.

The National Child Labor Committee began to take action. The members of this committee began to see that child labor was not only damaging to the child but hurt the nation as a whole. Child labor itself was an obstacle to the progress of the nation and to civilization in general. They said that if it was necessary to have child labor in America, then American society was not worth saving. More importantly they began to take some very important steps to change the situation.

First, they began to document how bad the situation of child labor had become. In 1908, they hired Lewis Hine, a photographer, to take pictures of children working in many different occupations in all kinds of conditions. These pictures were a powerful tool in convincing people of the evils of child labor. No longer could people deny that such conditions existed in America. The movement used these pictures in their efforts to lobby both state and national law-making bodies to enact legislation to address the problem of child labor. In addition, to arguing for an end to child labor, the movement also argued for improved working conditions for all workers and for compulsory education for children.

The first federal legislation concerning child labor was passed in 1916. Although, effective federal child labor laws would not really be in place until the late 1930s, this early legislation convinced Americans of the evils of child labor and ended much of the opposition to the prohibiting of child labor. It would take more time to convince the courts that legislating against child labor was not interfering with personal freedoms and was constitutional. In 1938, the Fair Labor Standards Act was based and this effectively ended the practice of child labor by not allowing a company to sell its products across state boundaries if they used child labor to produce it. This time the courts agreed with the law and said it was constitutional.

However, the National Child Labor Committee did not die. It is still active today. Although countless children and their children were saved from exploitation in mines, mills, and factories, new challenges have arisen both in the United States and abroad. There is still much work to be done and the young people today will have to be part of the solution.

The Campaign to End Child Labor, a summary of an article by Jim Zwick

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View
  1. What impact did the census report of 1900 have on the movement to ban child labor?
  2. Why were people alarmed about child labor when it was evident that progress in technology was leading to increased national wealth?
  3. Why was the documentation of child labor practices by the photographer, Lewis Hines, such an important step in bringing about reform?
  4. Why is the National Child Labor Committee still in existence today?

Scoring Guide 

 

Strategy 2

Songs for the Working Children

Read and analyze the following poems/songs and discuss them with the expert group. Use the questions at the end to guide your discussion. Return to your home group to teach how poetry and songs were effective tools when lobbying against child labor practices.

Printable Student View

“The Flower Factory” by Florence Willkinson
Lisabetta, Marianina, Fiametta, Teresina,
They are winding stems of Poses, one by one, one by
one – –
Little children who have never learned to play:
Teresina softly crying that her fingers ache today,
Tiny Fiametta nodding when the twilight slips in, gray.
High above the clattering street, ambulance and fire
gong beat,
They sit, curling crimson petals,one by one, one by one.
Lisabetta, Marianina, Fiametta, Teresina,
They have never seen a rose-bush nor a dewdrop in the
sun.
They will dream of the vendetta, Teresina, Fiametta
Of a Black Hand and a Face behind the grating;
They will dream of cotton petals, endless, crimson,
suffocating,
Never of a wild-rose thicket nor the singing of a cricket,
But the ambulance will bellow through the wanness of
their dreams,
And their tired lids will flutter with the street’s hysteric screams. 
Lisabetta, Marianina, Fiametta, Teresina,
They are winding stems of roses, one by one, one by
one,
Let them have a long, long play-time Lord of Toil,
When toil is done.

“The Machines” by Ernest Crosby
BR-R-R-R-R-R-R-R!
What are the machines saying, a hundred of them
in one long room?
They must be talking to themselves, for I see no
one else for them to talk to.
But yes, there is a boy’s red head bending over one
of them, and beyond I see a pale face fringed
with brown curly locks.
There are only five boys in all on this floor, half
hidden by the clattering machines, for one
bright lad can manage twenty-five of them.
Each machine makes one cheap, stout sock in five
minutes, without seam, complete from toe to
ankle, cutting the thread at the end and
beginning another of its own accord.
The boys have nothing to do but to clean and
burnish and oil the steel rods and replace the
spools of yarn.
But how rapidly and nervously they do it – – the
Slower hands straining to accomplish as much as
the fastest!
Working at high tension for ten hours a day in the
close, greasy air and endless whirr – – 
Boys who ought to be out playing ball in the fields
or taking a swim in the river this fine summer
afternoon.
And in these good times the machines go all night,
and other shifts of boys are kept from their
beds to watch them.
The young girls in the mending and finishing
rooms downstairs are not so strong as the
boys.
They have an unaccountable way of fainting and
collapsing in the noise and smell, and then
they are of no use for the rest of the day.
The kind stockholders have had to provide a room
for collapsed girls and to employ a doctor,
who finds it expedient not to understand this
strange new disease.
Perhaps their children will be more stalwart in the
next generation.
Yet this factory is one of the triumphs of our
civilization.
With only twenty boys at a time at the machines in 
all the room it produces five thousand dozen
pair of socks in twenty-four hours for the
toilers of the land.
It would take an army of fifty thousand hand-
knitters to do what these small boys perform.
II
BR-R-R-R-R-R-R-R!
What are the machines saying? They are saying,
“We are hungry. We have eaten up the men
and women (there is no longer a market for
men and women, they come too high) –
We have eaten up the men and women, and now
We are devouring the boys and girls.
How good they taste as we suck the blood from
their rounded cheeks and forms, and cast
them aside sallow and thin and care-worn,
then call for more!
Br-r-r-r-r-r-r-r! how good they taste; but they give
us so few boys and girls to eat nowadays,
altho there are so many outside begging to 
come in – – 
Only one boy to twenty of us, and we are nearly
famished.
We eat those they give us and those outside will
starve, and soon we shall be left almost alone
in the world with the stockholders.
Br-r-r-r-r-r-r-r! “what shall we do then for our
food?” the machines chatter on.
“When we are piling up millions of socks a day for
the toilers and there are no toilers left to buy
them and wear them.
Then perhaps we shall have to turn upon the kind
stockholders and feast on them (how fat and
tender and toothsome they will be!) until at
last we alone remain, clattering and chatting
in a desolate land,” growled the machines,
While the boys went on anxiously, hurriedly
rubbing and polishing, and the girls down-
stairs went on collapsing.
Br-r-r-r-r-r-r-r
III
The devil has somehow got into the machines.
They came like the good gnomes and fairies of 
old, to be our willing slaves and make our
lives easy.
Now that, by their help, one man can do the work
of a score, why have we not plenty for all,
with only enough work to keep us happy?
Who could have foreseen all the ills of our factory
workers and of those who are displaced and
cast aside by factory work?
The good wood and iron elves came to bless us all,
but some of us have succeeded in bewitching
them to our own ends and turning them
against the rest of mankind.
We must break the sinister charm and win over the
docile, tireless machines until they refuse to
shut out a single human being from their
benefits.
We must cast the devil out of the machines.
“Child Labor” by Benztown Bard
You going to put that boy to work,
That little bit of a kid,
Whose heart is out where the daisies are 
In the dew and the grasses hid?
Going to put that boy to work,
Whose soul is way out there,
Dreaming of meadows and streams and bridge,
And the joy of the summer air?
You going to put that boy to work 
Who is old enough, you say,
To be out helping you get along
With his little pittance of pay?
You going to put that boy to work
Who belongs to God awhile,
Out in the green of the boyhood sheen
Where the hills and meadows smile?
May be your business, and that I’m blind,
Or a fool to be butting in,
But putting a kid like that to work
Is an economic sin;
Stunting and putting him back so long 
From the glory he should know
In the good green spell of the wood and dell
Where a kid like him should grow.
You going to put that boy to work
Because he can help you bear
The burden of grocer and clothes and rent,
And he ought to be doing his share?
You going to put that boy to work,
That little kid whose eyes
And heart and soul are hankering for 
The blue of the summer skies?
You going to chain him in a mill,
Who all day longs and longs
For the playtime life on the good green hill
And the cheer of the robins’ song?
You’re going to put him in prison, eh,
That he’ll never get out again – –
For the dreams, the dreams, of the open day
Can never come back to men!

Songs for the Working Children,
a selection of poems used to protest child labor,
edited by Jim Zwick

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View
  1. How has the view of the world changed for girls who spend the day winding stems of poses, one by one?
  2. What are the machines saying?
  3. Why should little boys be dreaming of meadows and streams and bridges instead of working in a factory?
  4. How would you feel if you were standing in a small crowd listening to a singer(s) putting these poems to song?

Scoring Guide 

 

Strategy 3

Political Cartoons and Cartoonists

Use the cartoons below or select and analyze other cartoons at: 
http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/child_labor_intro.html

Cartoon Analysis Worksheet

Printable Student View

Cartoon 1

Early investigations of conditions in southern cotton mills made it appear to be a regional problem until it was discovered that many of them were owned by northern capitalists.

Citation: “White Slavery: Northern Capital and Southern Child Labor.” New York American and Journal; rpt. Literary Digest 28 (Oct. 18, 1902). http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/cl021018.html In Jim Zwick, ed., Political Cartoons and Cartoonists. http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/pc_intro.html (Sept. 25, 2004).

Cartoon 2

PARENT: “No, Sir, I don’t send ’em to work from greed, but because I’ve got to. But if I done it from downright Selfishness, what do you think of the Social conditions of a Republic that would turn parents into something worse than brutes?”

Uncle Sam holds a document labeled, “Land Monopoly System, High Tariff, Trust Rule.”

Citation: Bengough, John Wilson. “The Child Labor Question.” The Public 6 (May 16, 1903). http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/cl030516.html In Jim Zwick, ed., Political Cartoons and Cartoonists. http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/pc_intro.html (Sept. 25, 2004).

 

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View
  1. What is the message of each of the cartoons?
  2. What more can you learn about child labor by studying each of the cartoons more carefully?
  3. How does a cartoon differ from a picture?
  4. Which cartoon affected you the most and would make you want to do something to help ban child labor?

Scoring Guide 

Activity 3 2017-09-27T20:28:45+00:00

Activity 1

Activity 1

Essential Question

How were lives of children impacted by the industrial revolution?

Background

In the 1800’s many children as young as nine or ten years old worked at full-time jobs in factories and coal mines. Often the work was hard and dangerous, and the children worked as long as twelve hours a day.


Girls at a Virginia Cotton Mill, 1909
-from Library of Congress

Usually, the children went to work because they had to help support their families. Many people including their parents knew that these children should be in school, but economic necessity forced parents to allow these abuses to continue.

 

 

Instructional Strategies

Strategy 1

Role Playing

Assign students to work in pairs to rehearse the following skit. As they rehearse, listen for discussions of the content they will need to answer the questions at the end of the activity. Ask questions to encourage student thinking as you move about the room listening to the rehearsals and the discussion. Allow for creativity on the part of the students as they rehearse and present their skits so that skits do not become boring and repetitious. You may want to add a homework assignment for students to go online and learn more about child labor so that they can further embellish their skits. All groups should have the opportunity to present their skits, as presentational skills are important social studies skills. Develop a brief scoring tool with the students to provide feedback on each presentation.

Printable Student View

Role Play

With another student, rehearse the following scene until you are ready to present it to the class.

Scene I

You have just landed in your space machine in the year 1890. You find that you have landed in an American town in Massachusetts just before 6:00 A.M. There is a large, drab brick building located along a river. A whistle can be heard blowing loudly from the building and a sign on the building reads, “Lowell Textile Mill.” As you walk toward the building to investigate, a breathless girl in a shabby coat nearly runs into you.

Working Girl: Pardon me, but I can’t be late or they’ll lock the doors to the factory and I won’t earn any money today.

Space Traveler: But you are too young to be working. Where I come from we would be just getting up to get ready for school. Why aren’t you going to school today?

Working Girl: Oh, how I wish I could go to school. My mother promised to teach me how to read, but there is never enough time to do it. As you can see, I leave for work early in the morning and it is usually dark before I get home. And, I am so tired when I get home.

Space Traveler: My mother says that I am lucky to be going to school. There is so much to learn, but I sometimes wish, I could be free to do just what I want to do or to go to work like you do and make lots of money to buy lots of stuff.

Working Girl: I can’t buy anything. My father takes all of my money to buy food and clothes for me and my family. But, I can’t talk now. Come with me and maybe we can talk while I work. It’s sounds so wonderful not to have to have to work and to be able to spend my time studying.

Scene II

The inside of the factory is a deafening roar as the machines start up for the day. It is cold and dark and the air is dusty. During the short lunch break, the girl begins to tell you about her job.

Working Girl: As you can see, working here is not fun. You would hate it as much as I do. I work twelve hours every weekday. Saturday is my short day as the factory closes at 6 instead of 7.

Space Traveler: I’m not sure I could work that long and I’m afraid I would get hurt by one of those machines. Everything seems so loud, noisy and dangerous.

Working Girl: It is very dangerous. Many of the girls are injured, but the owner of the factory doesn’t care. There is always someone to take a child’s place. As I feed the threads into the machine, I have to be very careful not to get my fingers or dress caught in the machine. But it is hard to do because I have to work very fast to keep up with the machines.

Space Traveler: Why don’t you just quit? I would! I would never work under those conditions. It is too dangerous and it sure doesn’t give you much time for having fun with your friends.

Working Girl: I don’t have many friends- only the other girls at the factory and they are just as worn out at the end of the day as I am. Most of the children my age work in the factories. The owners like to hire children because they can pay them less than they would have to pay adults. And, I can’t quit because my parents depend on what I make to help support the family. The only other income is from my brother and his work is so dangerous that one day I fear he will not be sending any money home. He will be dead.

Scene III

The whistle blows and the girl goes back to work. The idea that children die at work makes you shudder. You want to know more about what her brother does so you wait outside the factory to walk home with her. You can smell the smoke from the factory and other terrible smells and you wonder if her brother works in a situation worse then this.

Space Traveler: It’s hard to imagine that your brother works in a worse situation or that his hours could be longer then yours. Where does he work?

Working Girl: He works at the Appalachian Coal Company in Pennsylvania. He works with a bunch of other boys to sort coal. He works from sunup to sundown. But, next year he will be eleven and will be able to work underground cutting out the coal. It will be more dangerous because of the bad air, thick coal dust, and possible cave-ins, but the pay will be a little better.

Space Traveler: They must pay an awful lot to get these little boys to do this.

Working Girl: Remember, they can pay children a lot less then they would pay adults and even that is not very much. And, to make sure he doesn’t take too much money home, they pay him in scrip that he can only use at the company store. Sometimes he owes the company store more then he makes and they get most of his pay.

Space Traveler: Maybe going to school isn’t all that bad. There should be laws protecting children from having to work so hard and making sure they get the chance to go to school. I never thought I would be saying this- but school sounds like a wonderful place to be! And, with an education, I can sure do more than just sort coal from sunup to sundown.

Working Girl: Do what you can to help us. There will always be children that need your help.

 

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View
  1. What can you tell about the working conditions in a factory in the United States in 1897?
  2. Why do you think so little attention was paid to the education of children in 1890?
  3. Why do you think so little was done to improve the lives of children during the 1800s?
  4. What changes would you predict would have to occur before laws would be passed to prohibit child labor?

 Scoring Guide

 

Strategy 2

KWLH Chart

Keep a KWLH eraseable chart in the front of your room. Use it for this module to record what students want to know more about as they do their skits and begin their discussions about child labor. Use your computer lab time or the computers in your room to begin to find answers to these questions. Research can be done in groups or individually, depending on the availability of computers. Allow students to independently fill in the L part of the KWLH chart as they find additional information. Use the sites listed in this module to help students begin their searches.

Your chart should look like this:

Printable Student View

K W L H Chart

What We KnowWhat We Want to Find OutWhat We LearnedHow Can We Learn More
    

Strategy 3

Using a Concept Map

Use a concept map to begin identifying the attributes of the concept of child labor. Put child labor in the center and begin looking for ideas associated with the concept. For example, the following words from the role play will begin to flesh out the concept of child labor: textile mills, factories, coal dust, cave-in, script, company store, machines, whistle, shabby coat, lockout, noisy, dusty, dangerous, factory owner, threads, sorting coal, underground, cutting out coal, bad air, laws to protect children, education. After all of the skits have been presented, discuss the concept of child labor using these words from your concept map. Have students keep the concept map in their notebook and add to it as you increase the depth of your discussions about child labor.

 
Activity 1 2017-09-27T20:28:44+00:00

Child Labor

Overview

Essential Purpose

Child labor is both a historical issue and a current global issue. And, as our world becomes more and more interdependent, global issues become both national and local in scope. The Industrial Revolution created the conditions for the rise of child labor. As more and more cheap labor was needed to keep the factories and mines operating, it is easy to see how the work force included more and more children. However the outcry against this abuse of children led to legislative reform in the United States. But, in many parts of the world this abuse of children is still occurring and there is still a need to be concerned about the plight of these children.

This module will help students understand the reasons for the rise of child labor in the United States in the 1800s; to understand how the outcry against the abuses of children led to legislation to ban it; and, to understand why child labor is still a problem today in many parts of the world. Although it focuses on the industrial revolution in the United States and the conditions that created the movement for child labor laws, it also helps children see that many of these same conditions exist in many parts of the world today.

As students learn about the abuses of child labor in this country and how legislation addresses these abuses, they will come to understand that they can help do something about these abuses worldwide.

 
Child Labor in the Mideast – edited from United Nations website

National History Standards

Era 6 (1870-1900)
The Development of Industrial United States

Standard 3: The rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes.

  • Standard 3A: The student understands how the “second industrial revolution” changed the nature and conditions of work.
    • Examine historical perspective
      • Analyze the causes and consequences of the industrial employment of children

State/Local Standards

States should align these modules to their own state/local standards as appropriate.

Essential Questions

  • How were lives of children impacted by the industrial revolution?
  • Why was it necessary to pass laws to protect the lives of children in the United States and other industrialized countries?
  • How can the quality of working conditions for children be improved in countries that still use child labor?

Essential Content

Impact of the Industrial Revolution

  • Need for Cheap Labor
  • Technological Advances
  • Benefits of the Industrial Revolution
  • Changes in the Social Structure
    • Increased wealth for the few
    • Low wages for the workers

Child Labor

  • Need for a cheap labor supply for industry
  • Effect on education for children
  • Health and safety consequences
  • Low wages/poor working conditions

Growth of the Movement for Child Labor Laws

  • Outcry from parents
  • Work of reformers
  • Documentation of poor working conditions through articles and pictures
  • Effects of lobbying efforts through the use of the media, cartoons, and songs

Child Labor Practices Today

  • Areas of the world most affected by child labor abuses
  • World organizations to help improve the working conditions for children
  • Children’s effort to improve working conditions for children

Essential Skills

Standards in Historical Thinking

Standard 1: Chronological Thanking

  • Identify in historical narratives the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story

Standard 2: Historical Comprehension

  • Evidence historical perspective

Standard 3: Historical Analysis and Interpretation

  • Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions

Standard 5: Historical Issues: Analysis and Decision Making

  • Formulate a position or course of action on an issue.

Summative Assessment

This summative assessment and scoring guide should be reviewed with students prior to using the activities in the module. Students should do the assessment after the activities have been completed.

Essential Questions Addressed by the Summative Assessment

  • How were lives of children impacted by the industrial revolution?
  • Why was it necessary to pass laws to protect the lives of children in the United States and other industrialized countries?
  • How can the quality of working conditions for children be improved in countries that still use child labor?

Printable Student View

Prior Knowledge
Problem
Role/Perspective
Product/Performance
Criteria for an Exemplary Response

Now that you have learned how children were treated in many of the industrialized countries of the world during the industrial revolution and how laws were passed to help make conditions better for them, you are ready to come up with some recommendations of your own to assist children in other parts of the world who are suffering under many of these same conditions.

Many people believe that the problem of child labor today cannot be solved without the help of children themselves from all over the world. It is those who how have suffered from child abuse who know its affect on children and what can be done to stop it. But, it is also children like you who have knowledge of child abuse and how it was solved in other countries who can now use this knowledge to contribute to a worldwide solution. Together you may be able to make some recommendations that the adults of the world can implement to solve the problem.

You are the research consultant to the Ambassador to the United Nations from the United States.

You have been asked to prepare a research report for the Ambassador to use at a forthcoming Conference on Child Labor Abuses Around the World. In the report, you will explain why the use of child labor has changed over time in the United States. Based on your evidence make a list of five recommendations that you think could put an end to abusive child labor practices worldwide. Be prepared to support your recommendations with specific information from this module.

In your research report, be sure to include:

  • How the use of child labor changed in the United States
  • At least three reasons why child labor was changed
  • Five important recommendations to end abusive child labor practices worldwide
  • Support for each recommendation including facts and information about children who have experienced child labor abuses
  • At least one graphic to illustrate the importance of the recommendation and the need for change

Scoring Guide

Child Labor 2017-09-27T20:28:44+00:00

Climates & People

Overview

Essential Purpose

This module will provide an opportunity for students to understand and be able to explain why the global circulation system, latitude, and elevation affect climate and the consequences for people living in various places. Climates of regions and local places are important to the people who live there and the activities they pursue. There are numerous examples of activities that are located in particular climates, such as theme parks in the subtropical climates of Florida and ski resorts in the mountain climate of Colorado.

Climate, and the associated patterns of daily weather that reflect the longer-term climate of a place, comprise an important part of Earth’s Physical System.

National Geography Standards

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY STANDARD 7: The Physical Processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.

MIDDLE SCHOOL STANDARD: Analyze physical patterns in terms of the processes that created them.

Benchmark: Construct and analyze climate graphs for selected places and suggest reasons for similarities and differences in climates.

State/Local Standards

States should align these modules to their own state/local standards as appropriate.

Essential Questions

  1. What is the difference between weather and climate?
  2. What are the effects of latitude on climate?
  3. How does climate influence the activities of people?

Essential Content

  • climate
  • climate regions
  • weather
  • latitude
  • earth-sun relationship

Essential Skills

Standards in Geographical Thinking:

Asking Geographic questions

  • Observing and formulating questions about the weather and climate where they live and in other places

Analyzing Geographic Information

  • Using diagrams, graphs, and maps to analyze information about climate

Summative Assessment

This summative assessment and scoring guide should be reviewed with students prior to using the activities in the module. Students should do the assessment after the activities have been completed.

Essential Questions Addressed by the Summative Assessment

  1. What are the effects of latitude on climate?
  2. How does climate influence the activities of people?

Printable Student View

Prior Knowledge
Problem
Role/
Perspective
Product
Criteria for an Exemplary Response

Now that you have learned how latitude and the effects of the more direct rays of sunshine during the seasons of the year are important in forming climatic regions, you are ready to apply that knowledge to explain climatic patterns

The Earth is in an orbit that is nearly circular around the Sun. It takes a year for the Earth to complete one orbit. In March and September the Sun’s heat and light rays strike the equator directly and are not inclined at an angle. This is why it is so hot in countries near the equator. At the North and South Poles, the rays from the Sun skim across the Earth at a very small angle; hardly any heat hits the Earth in these regions and that is why the Arctic and Antarctic regions are so cold. The N-S axis of the Earth is inclined at an angle of about 23 degrees to the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. This means that there are a few months of the year when the North Pole is inclined towards the Sun. The Sun shines down on the northern Earth for many hours of the day and it is summer. Of course, the southern Earth is facing away from the Sun and it is winter there It is very difficult for young people to understand these ideas as they try to imagine why it gets so cold in winter and so hot in summer. When you tell them that the sun is actually closer to the earth in winter then it is in summer, they are even more confused

You work at the science center in your city. You are expecting an elementary school group to visit the center and you know they are interested in why we have four seasons.

Create models of Earth-Sun relationships to use with these students to show the importance of latitude on the Earth’s climate regions. Show correct Earth-Sun relationships and the effects of more direct sunlight on the surface of Earth. Be sure your models are simple enough to appeal to elementary students, but detailed enough to be accurate. Prepare notes to go with the presentation of your models to answer the following questions:

Criteria:

  • What is the relationship of the Earth to the Sun at the spring and fall equinox and the summer and winter solstice?
  • Where will the most direct sunlight reach the Earth during the year?
  • What is the relationship between latitude, climate, and temperature?
  • What are some examples of how climate influences the activities of people?

Make your presentation to the group of students visiting the Science Center (your class).

Scoring Guide

Climates & People 2017-09-27T20:28:46+00:00

Cold War

Overview

Essential Purpose

Peace did not arrive when World War II finally came to an end. Instead, the Cold War began. This is an important topic for students to understand, because the Cold War dominated U.S. and world history for almost the entire second half of the 20th century, and its effects are felt today in many ways. This module will engage students in the study of the Cold War: how it began, how it affected people’s lives, how it ended, and how it left a legacy for us today.

National History Standards

Era 9 (The 20th Century Since 1945)

Standard 3: Major global trends since World War II

  • Standard 3A. The student understands major global trends since World War II.
    • Analyze Multiple Causation
      • Explain why the Cold War took place and ended and assess its significance as a 20th-century event.

State/Local Standards

States should align these modules to their own state/local standards as appropriate.

Essential Questions

  • Why do competing world powers come into conflict?
  • How do clashes of ideology impact governments and how people live?
  • What problems result from the tension between world powers and how do they attempt to resolve these problems?

Essential Content

Reasons why the Cold War began after World War II:

  • Cooperation between the West and Russia during World War II turned to distrust
  • U.S. and Russia became dominant powers after WWII and distrusted each other
  • U.S. took measures to stop the spread of communism
  • The Soviet Union blockaded Berlin and allies responded with airlift
  • Soviet Union tested its first A bomb
  • China became Communist

Cold War impacted governments and people’s lives

  • In other countries
  • In the U.S.
  • In consequences for international relations
  • By contrasting the political, social, and economic systems of the U.S. and Soviet Union
  • By setting the framework for international politics from 1945 – 1989

Evolution and ending of the Cold War

  • Cold War became less hostile during détente
  • Competition was diminished by other concerns
  • Mikhail Gorbachev led Soviet Union away from communism
  • China moved toward closer ties to the west
  • Cold War ended in early 1990s but legacy lives on

Essential Skills

Standards in Historical Thinking

Standard 3 Historical Analysis and Interpretation

  • Compare competing historical narratives
  • Hypothesize the influence of the past
  • Consider multiple perspectives

Standard 4: Historical Analysis and Interpretation

  • Formulate historical questions

Standard 5: Historical Issues – Analysis and Decision Making

  • Marshall evidence of antecedent circumstances and contemporary factors contributing to problems and alternative courses of action
  • Identify issues and problems in the past
  • Evaluate alternative courses of action

Summative Assessment

This assessment may be carried out independently by the students or as team projects, where students work in pairs or in groups of three.

Teachers should set aside class time to help students with research and writing. Consider putting each completed booklet in the library for other students to check out and read. Remind students to think of the audience as they do their work. The cover for the book should be both attractive and sturdy.

The topics covered should cover at least one essential question for each group.

Essential Questions Addressed by the Summative Assessment

  • Why do competing world powers come into conflict?
  • How do clashes of ideology impact governments and how people live?
  • What problems result from the tension between world powers and how do they attempt to resolve these problems?

Printable Student View

Prior Knowledge
Problem
Role/Perspective
Product
Criteria for an Exemplary Response

Now that you have learned what the “Cold War” was, how it started, how it impacted peoples’ lives and how it ended, you are ready to try to tell this story to younger students.

You have just received an email form Susan Klein, an editor from Smith Publishing Company. They have decided to publish a series of booklets for junior high students dealing with the Cold War.

Your teacher has told them that you are a high school student who is a good researcher, thinker, and writer, who likes to communicate ideas to younger students.

As a result, the publishing company wants you to be the author of a booklet dealing with the subject of the cold war. In the booklet, the publishing company wants you to address these questions:

  1. What was the Cold War?
  2. What was one event that resulted from the Cold War?
    • Why was this event important to the Cold War?
    • How did it start?
    • How did it affect people’s lives?
    • How did it end?
    • How does this historical period effect our lives today?

Be prepared to present your booklet to the class.

You will also find the Guidelines for Your Booklet useful in organizing your information.

Scoring Guide

Cold War 2017-10-25T19:09:14+00:00

Crossing the Threshold

Overview

Essential Purpose

About 10,000 years ago, humans began to produce their food in a more systematic way – through agriculture. The shift toward agriculture happened gradually over a long period of time, independently on all continents, except Australia. For the vast majority of history, humans lived as hunters and gatherers. The emergence of farming resulted in a whole new way of living. By producing food more systematically, humans were able to live together in greater numbers and greater density than ever before. But such growth in population also required new ways of social organization.


Jericho, one of the earliest farming towns in the world

This module will help students understand how and why agrarian societies developed around the world and how the advent of agriculture involved a complex interaction of topography, climate, resources, and human innovation.

National History Standards

Era 1: The Beginnings of Human Society

Standard 2: The processes that led to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world.

Standard 2A: The student understands how and why humans established settled communities and experimented with agriculture.

  • Infer from archaeological evidence the technology, social organization, and cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia.
  • Identify areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities probably appeared and analyze the environmental and technological factors that made possible experiments with farming in these regions.

Standard 2B: The student understands how agricultural societies developed around the world.

  • Analyze differences between hunter gatherer and agrarian communities in economy, social organization, and quality of living.
  • Analyze archaeological evidence from agricultural village sites in Southwest Asia, North Africa, China, or Europe indicating the emergence of social class divisions, occupational specializations, and differences in the daily tasks that men and women performed.
  • Assess archaeological evidence for long-distance trade in Southwest Asia.

State/Local Standards

States should align these modules to their own state/local standards as appropriate.

Essential Questions

  • How did humans live for most of history and why did they maintain this way of life for so long?
  • Where did agricultural communities arise and how did their development lead to the rise of complex societies?
  • What are the distinguishing characteristics of complex societies?

Essential Content

Hunting and Gathering

  • Hunting and gathering was the way of life for humans for tens of thousands of years – far longer than the existence of any other way of life.
  • The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture occurred first in places where hunting and gathering could no longer sustain the population due to population pressures and/or changing environments.

Complex Societies

  • In some places, the gradual transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture led to the development of complex societies.
  • Characteristics of a complex society may include: the development of cities, specialization of labor, organized government and religious institutions, social classes, long distance trade, and the development of written language or other means of keeping records.
  • In some places the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture did not lead to the development of complex societies. In those places, the plants and animals available for domestication did not provide a surplus that could be stored and/or the cultivation of crops was so labor intensive that it did not allow for the specialization of labor.

The need for communities to work cooperatively in order to make the most productive use possible of their environment further spurred the early development of some highly complex societies.

Essential Skills

Standard 3: Historical Analysis and Interpretation

  • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causations, including the importance of the individual, the influence of ideas, and the role of chance.
  • Hypothesize the influence of the past.

Standard 5: Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making

  • Identify issues and problems in the past.
  • Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances and contemporary factors contributing to problems and alternative courses of action.
  • Identify relevant historical antecedents.
  • Evaluate alternative courses of action.
  • Formulate a position or course of action on an issue.
  • Evaluate the implementation of a decision.

Summative Assessment

This summative assessment and scoring guide should be reviewed with students prior to using the activities in the module. Students should do the assessment after the activities have been completed.

Essential Questions Addressed by the Summative Assessment:

  • Why have civilizations changed slowly over time with more rapid changes occurring during the modern era?
  • Where did agricultural communities arise and how did their development lead to the rise of complex societies?
  • What are the distinguishing characteristics of complex societies?

Printable Student View

Connection to Prior Knowledge
Problem
Role/
Perspective
Product/ Performance
Criteria for an Exemplary Response
Now that you have learned the distinguishing characteristics of a complex society, you are ready to analyze an excavation site to see if this site gives evidence of being a complex society.

Artifacts have recently been found that appear to have come from a previously unknown agrarian settlement. Since the artifacts first appeared for sale on the illegal black market for ancient art, the exact location of their discovery is unknown. However, there is evidence that the artifacts originated somewhere in the region shown on the map. A university has agreed to sponsor a summer expedition to find this lost civilization. The university has provided only enough time and money to excavate one site in the region.

You are an archaeologist working for the university. As head of the archaeology department, you have been given the opportunity to lead the expedition. After careful consideration, you have selected a site which you think will yield evidence of a complex society.

After excavating the site, you are anxious to write a brief report telling the university’s Board of Trustees why you have made a wise decision to excavate this particular site. Review the Summary of Archaeological Findings and also photographs of artifacts from this site. Analyze this evidence and use it in your report to support your conclusion. In your report, be sure to:

  • Review the characteristics of a complex society
  • Make a determination of whether or not your team has found a complex society
  • Using the map provided, identify the site by number. Tell why this might be the location of a more complex society.
  • Use specific artifacts from the site to support your opinion

Scoring Guide

Crossing the Threshold 2017-09-27T20:28:50+00:00
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