RtI Framework in Nebraska
Response-to-Intervention (RtI) Framework in Nebraska
Essential Elements of Response to Intervention (RtI)
The RtI framework depicted above creates a continuum of instructional supports for all students through a multi-tiered approach. In Tier 1, the bottom tier of the pyramid, the goal is to maximize learning for all students. Utilizing universal screening data and a scientifically/research-based core instructional program for all students, districts should expect 80-90 percent of students to meet benchmarks and standards.
In Tier 2 (targeted instruction – second tier of cone) appropriate instruction/intervention is provided to students not making sufficient progress in core curricula in Tier 1. Instruction that is matched to student needs and is more explicit and intensive is provided, in addition to core instruction in small, flexible, homogeneous groups.
Tier 3 instruction provides sustained support for students not making adequate progress with targeted support. Ongoing supports are designed to provide direct, systematic instruction with substantial opportunities for practice in small groups and student progress is monitored frequently.
When implemented with fidelity, the Essential Elements of RtI, which are represented in the base of the cone, provide a framework for prevention, early intervention, school improvement and valid data for eligibility decisions. The Essential Elements for RtI are based on principles identified in research for an effective RtI system and provide the overarching framework to guide the implementation of RtI.
The Essential Elements are described below.
Within an RtI model, district and school-based teams provide leadership in assessment coordination, instructional modifications and intervention selection/implementation, and data analysis and decision making at the district, school, grade, and individual student levels. Teams may provide guidance in the implementation of the entire RtI process or may focus on specific components (e.g., school wide data collection, problem solving at the individual student level). Examples of team activities include but are not limited to: (a) reviewing school-wide data, (b) examining the research base of current or future core and intervention programs used in the school, (c) attending and providing professional development that pertains to RtI, (d) collecting progress monitoring data on students receiving interventions, and (e) adjusting student interventions based on data. RtI leadership team members are chosen based on their role in the school and the knowledge and expertise they bring to the team. Participants may include parents, classroom teachers, special educators, content experts, school psychologists, and those with other specialized experience. An administrator is also included to facilitate school wide ownership and support of the RtI process and resource allocation.
Within an RtI model, parents are informed and involved. Parents are provided with information about the RTI process, their child’s eligibility for and involvement in intervention(s), and their child’s academic progress (e.g., data reports). Procedures for obtaining parent permission, notifying parents, and explaining rights to due process are also included when appropriate. Information may be provided to parents through a variety of mechanisms, including newsletters, form letters, reports, and face-to-face meetings. Parents may be involved in several aspects of the educational process, including participation in the district and/or school-wide team(s), planning meetings, problem-solving teams, and progress-monitoring or decision-making meetings regarding their children. School personnel develop a plan for informing and involving parents at each tier or level of support and consider parents’ availability when scheduling meetings.
Scientifically-Based Core Instruction and Intervention
Instruction and intervention at all levels of intensity (Tiers 1, 2, and 3) within an RtI model is scientifically-based, or based on rigorous research in content covered and methods used. For example, in the area of reading, the content of scientifically-based instruction and intervention programs includes the “Big Ideas” found in research and outlined by the National Reading Panel: phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Scientifically-based instructional methods for all content areas include modeling, providing multiple opportunities for active student responding and guided practice, and providing corrective feedback. Appropriate scientifically-based instructional materials at all levels of intensity provide a systematic scope and sequence that includes clear guidelines about which skills are taught and the order in which content are introduced. These materials can be used to differentiate instruction based on the level of student need (i.e., to support students, including English language learners, who are performing above grade level, at grade level, slightly below grade level, significantly below grade level, etc.). The scientifically-based instruction and intervention materials employed are appropriate for a system that uses student data and clearly-specified decision rules to guide implementation.
Universal Screening Assessment
Universal screening assessments are used to assess the performance of all students in a particular skill area(s) and are valid and reliable for the purpose of screening. Screening involves collecting data for all students several times a year during a specified period of time (e.g., within a two-week window). School personnel review assessment technical manuals prior to administering screening assessments to verify reports of adequate reliability and validity and appropriateness for use with diverse samples. In addition, they conduct ongoing reliability checks to ensure accurate data are collected for decision making. School personnel also participate in professional development on the administration and scoring of assessment measures and the use of assessment data for decision making. Routine teacher meetings (e.g., meetings after each screening assessment period) are conducted to review and analyze data and to make instructional changes.
Individual Progress Monitoring
Individual progress is monitored for students who are identified for intervention within an RtI model. Objective, reliable, valid, and sensitive measures are used in this process. Multiple assessment forms or probes are used at each grade level, allowing regular assessment without duplication of probes. Assessments are administered on a regular basis (e.g., weekly); student progress is graphed for each student receiving intervention; and clearly specified, quantitative progress goals are set prior to intervention to inform decision making. To facilitate the decision making process, graphs include visual displays of baseline data, a pre-determined number of data points, an aim line, a goal line, and phase change lines. Individual districts or schools establish guidelines regarding the number of progress-monitoring data points (e.g., 7 data points) necessary to determine students’ response to intervention(s). An electronic database may be used to manage and document student data and to facilitate ongoing reliability checks to ensure accurate data are collected for decision making. Professional development on the administration and scoring of assessment measures and the use of assessment data for decision making is provided to school personnel.
Planned Service Delivery Decision Rules
Decision rules provide instructional guidance within an RtI model based on individual student goals and changes in student performance (i.e., rate, level, consistency) over time as determined by progress monitoring assessments. Decision rules for intervention selection and modification, movement between tiers of service, and responsiveness to intervention are established before RTI is used. Decision rules typically include information regarding how data are validated, which data are used for educational decision making, and criteria for making instructional and intervention decisions at each tier of support.
Within an RtI model, scientifically-based interventions are provided in addition to core instruction. Skilled, certified personnel deliver or supervise the delivery of scientifically-based interventions. Personnel delivering interventions are trained on both the specific intervention being delivered and on effective instructional methods such as modeling, and providing multiple opportunities for active student responding, guided practice, and corrective feedback. Interventions are selected and modified by RtI leadership teams based on students’ needs identified using data from diagnostic and progress monitoring assessments. Leadership teams establish minimum standards for the intervention duration and the amount of data collected before determining whether a student is responding or not responding to intervention and before making substantive intervention changes. Intervention intensity increases when students are less responsive.
Fidelity of Instruction
Scientifically-based instruction and intervention at all levels of intensity (Tiers 1, 2, and 3) within an RtI model is delivered with fidelity (as intended by the program developers). To support high quality instruction and prevent drift in the intervention plan, an adherence plan is developed for core instruction, supplemental programs, and interventions. The RtI leadership team, including teachers, participates in the development of this plan, and the plan is not used for teacher evaluation. As part of the adherence plan, an impartial professional who is familiar with the instruction and intervention programs regularly observes instruction and intervention delivery using fidelity checklists and adherence protocols and provides feedback to the interventionists. Adherence checks are made more frequently as the intensity of interventions increases.