Formative Assessment

Activity 3: Formative Assessment

Printable Student View

Use this website to review the World Climates: 

www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/interactive_climate_map/climate_map.html

Work with a partner to review what you have learned about each of the world climates. Be sure to talk about at least one location in each of these climatic areas:

  • Low Latitude Climates
  • Midlatitude and Subtropical Climates
  • High Latitude Climates

Choose one of the sites on the map to explore further. Add to the paragraph description of that site by considering additional information provided on the site. Example: Temperate Forest of Wisconsin

Add additional information about:

  • Characteristics
  • Precipitation
  • Temperature
  • Controlling Factors
  • Subtypes
Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:48+00:00

Skills and Best Practices

Activity 3: Skills and Best Practices

Interpreting Climate Maps

  • Latitude and its influence on solar radiation received.
  • Air mass influences.
  • Location of global high and low pressure zones.
  • Heat exchange from ocean currents.
  • Distribution of mountain barriers.
  • Pattern of prevailing winds.
  • Distribution of land and sea.
  • Altitude.

All of the above are major influences on climate in a particular region. This site: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html not only discusses these factors, but applies them to The Koppen Climate Classification System. It is the most widely used system for classifying the world’s climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Koppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter.

The Koppen Climate Classification System

A – Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius.

B – Dry Climates: with deficient precipitation during most of the year.

C – Moist Mid-latitude Climates: with Mild Winters.

D – Moist Mid-Latitude Climates: with Cold Winters.

E – Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers.

 

Making Predictions

Teaching Writing in the Social Studies

Demonstrate How to Use Helpful Features of Expository Text

Many students fail to use expository text features that promote understanding and learning. Draw students’ attention to helpful features, and model how to use them. For example, you might show a class how to use chapter titles, overviews, and headings to determine main ideas, make predictions about content, and set specific purposes for reading. If study questions are interpolated within the text, encourage students to use them to monitor their comprehension of a section of text. If questions are at the end of the entire text, discuss the questions in class before students read the text.

Social studies teachers have to be teachers of writing, speaking and listening. Just try to think how useful social studies information is to a person who lacks these skills.

This site, www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/improving_reading.phtml, suggests some other easy strategies to help students become better readers and writers.

  • Provide Advance Organizers
  • Use Word Webs and Word Walls to Teach Vocabulary
  • Use Role Plays and KWL Charts to Activate Prior Knowledge
Skills and Best Practices 2017-09-27T20:28:48+00:00

Formative Assessment

Activity 2: Formative Assessment

Printable Student View

The Climate Patterns table shows the annual average temperature for the coldest and warmest months for five cities in the United States.

Rule: Increasing latitude has the effect of decreasing temperatures on Earth. This effect is there if you increase latitude north or south.

Read the rule and study the information in the table. Then write a paragraph that states why the rule and table are in agreement, or why they disagree.

Climate Patterns

Temp/PrecipDuluthChicagoNashvilleAtlantaMiami
Coldest month1022384269 (Jan)
Warmest month7078808082
Latitude47 N42 M36 N34 N26 N

Scoring Guide

Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:47+00:00

Skills and Best Practices

Activity 2: Skills and Best Practices

Cause and Effect

Given a set of data or other information, student must be able to establish a convincing relationship in writing of the cause and effect. For example: When writing your essay, keep the following suggestions in mind:

  • Remember your purpose. Decide if you are writing to inform or persuade.
  • Focus on immediate and direct causes (or effects.) Limit yourself to causes that are close in time and related, as opposed to remote and indirect causes, which occur later and are related indirectly.
  • Strengthen your essay by using supporting evidence. Define terms, offer facts and statistics, or provide examples, anecdotes, or personal observations that support your ideas.
  • Qualify or limit your statements about cause and effect. Unless there is clear evidence that one event is related to another, qualify your statements with phrases such as “It appears that the cause was” or “It seems likely” or “The evidence may indicate” or “Available evidence suggests.”

To evaluate the effectiveness of a cause and effect essay, ask the following questions: What are the causes? What are the effects? Which should be emphasized? Are there single or multiple causes? Single or multiple effects? Is a chain reaction involved?

This site, www.delmar.edu/engl/wrtctr/handouts, reminds us that simply seeing cause and effect is not sufficient and suggests the following steps when writing a cause and effect essay:

  • Clearly distinguish between cause and effect
  • Develop your thesis statement
  • Find and organize supporting details
  • Use appropriate transitions

Application

The teaching process is never complete until students can see the relevancy of what they are learning. Students learn new information by connecting it to prior knowledge, extending and refining their understanding of this new information, and then applying the information to a new setting.

Tips from Teaching Todaywww.glencoe.com/ps/teachingtoday, suggest some ideas for:

  • Teaching in a Global World
  • Teaching Cross Curriculum
  • Using Your Own Experience in the Classroom
Skills and Best Practices 2017-09-27T20:28:47+00:00

Formative Assessment

Activity 1: Formative Assessment

Printable Student View

Greenland’s summer days are long and light, while its winter days are dark and cold.
  1. The above statement best describes

    A. Northern latitude effects 
    B. Climate 
    C. Temperature fluctuation 
    D. Weather

  2. How does the amount of direct sunlight in the far north compare to the equator on December 21?

    A. There is more direct sunlight 
    B. There is less direct sunlight 
    C. There is the same amount of direct sunlight 
    D. There is no direct sunlight on December 21

    Is this an example of climate or weather? Explain your answer.

  3. Use the weather section of your daily newspaper to think about weather and climate.
    • Identify one example of climate description
    • Identify one example of a weather description.

    Write a paragraph describing the difference between weather and climate using the descriptions from the daily newspaper to support your conclusions.

Scoring Guide

Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:47+00:00

Skills and Best Practices

Activity 1: Skills and Best Practices

Concept Formation

Using a series of questions can be useful in defining a concept. For example, the following questions could be adapted to teach the concepts of weather and climate:

  • What places of the world uniquely illustrate the concept of climate?
  • What are the characteristics of “climate”?
  • How is climate alike and different from “weather”?

More information is available at: www.ehhs.cmich.edu.

Graphic Organizers

Graphic organizers come in all shapes and forms and can be used for variety of purposes.

Find your favorite graphic organizer and detailed information about it at the following site:http://www.graphic.org/goindex.html.

Advanced Organizers

Advance organizers are a special form of graphic organizers. They do include such strategies as charts, diagrams, and concept maps usually labeled as “graphic organizers”. However, they may also include oral presentations and pictures containing context clues. What is the difference?

Advance organizers are used for a specific person – they connect new information to prior knowledge. We learn new things by relating them to concepts and skills that we are already familiar with. Specifically, they:

  • Provide a clued and link our minds to the previous knowledge
  • Help to embed new knowledge into long term memory
  • Relate the new information to the old knowledge
Skills and Best Practices 2017-09-27T20:28:47+00:00

Activity 3

Activity 3

Essential Question

How does climate influence the activities of people?

Background

Most of the earth’s climate regions have an east-west orientation. However, mountains, warm water currents such as the Gulf Stream, and prevailing winds have influences that are sometimes greater than the effect of latitude. For example, a range of mountains with elevations of 14,000 feet, such as the Rocky Mountains, has a climate in the upper elevations that is similar in climate to locations at 65° north latitude throughout the year. Precipitation is just as important an indicator of climate as is temperature. Precipitation is necessary to support the natural vegetation, animals, and people living in a place. Many climate regions shown on maps have names that reflect the natural vegetation. For example, grasslands make up one of the world’s large climate regions.


Hurricanes affect people’s lives

All of these climatic factors are important determinants in where and how people live. This means that people choosing to live in areas with extreme temperature changes, must be able to adapt to these changes. They must understand these changes and be able to plan for how they will adapt to them. For example, housing must be able to withstand severe weather and there must be a surplus of food for times when food crops cannot be grown. In general, the people must be more aware of their environment as the climate changes so that new ways of providing for their needs can be developed.

Instructional Strategies

Strategy 1

Interpreting Climate Maps

With the Climate Regions Summary Table and the Climate Map below, use the following questions to introduce the various climate regions of the world:

  • How many climate regions does the map show?
  • Why does it take so many classifications to show the earth’s climates?

Printable Student View

Climate Regions Summary Table: Observations from the Climate Map

Northern Latitude

Color
Climate Region from Key
Orientation
 TundraEast West(E/W),
far North
Light Green  
Bright GreenBroadleaf Forest 
Light BrownGrassland (Steppe)E/W
Brown  
 Desert 
Yellow E/W Africa to
South America
 Tropical Rain Forest 

Printable Student View

Climate Map

Equator

Use the following questions to focus discussion about the table and map:

Printable Student View

  1. Where do the patterns for climate regions closely follow latitude?

    The earth rotates on its axis so that similar latitudes receive about the same amounts of direct sunlight during the year. This results in similar climatic conditions unless interrupted by mountains or large water bodies.

  2. Where is the east west pattern of climate regions interrupted?

    The interruption is greatest in the mountainous regions and along the west coasts of continents.

  3. In general, if you were to leave the equator and travel to either the north or south poles, what changes would you observe in temperature?

    The temperatures would get colder the further north or south one traveled; in summer the region from 35 to 45 degrees north and south is often as warm or hot as it is on the equator, but for a shorter time.

  4. What prediction would you make about the amount of precipitation a climate region receives based on its name?

    While the amount of precipitation in inches may vary, when a climate region is classified as tropical rainforest, the emphasis in on the rain. It is wet. When a region is classified as desert, it is dry. Tundra is a cold desert. Other climate regions are between huge amounts of rain and desert, and usually in this order: tropical rainforest – most precipitation; monsoon –next in amount of precipitation; deciduous forest – next in descending amount of precipitation; coniferous forest – next; savannah – next; steppe – next in descending order; tundra – next; and desert – least amount of precipitation.

  5. Why aren’t climate regions nice and neat and exact?

    Mountains, large bodies of water, and continents of different sizes interrupt them. The effects of a major mountain range or the vast interior of a continent often introduces elements of latitude, temperature, and precipitation that result in a particular dry, hot dry, or very wet condition such as the monsoons of South Asia.

 

Strategy 2

Making Predictions Based on Available Evidence

Access the Interactive World Climate Map at:
http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/interactive_climate_map/climate_map.html

  • Have the students use the Global Climate Assessment Chart to record information from three of the sites on the Interactive World Climate Map. Select one near the equator (Iquitos, Mangalore –Banglaore), one mid-latitude (Chicago) and one in the high latitudes (Irkutsk).
  • Ask the students to enter the information concerning the latitude, the temperature in July, and the temperature in January. Use the classifications in the top row of the table to generalize about the temperature.
  • Have students classify each location as high, middle, or low latitude. Then ask about the July temperature. Will it be hot, warm, cool, or cold?
  • Ask about the January temperature. Will it be hot, warm, cool, or cold? Why?
  • In the annul precipitation column, write what the precipitation is for the place. Use the classifications wet, dry, or wet/dry season. For example, Phoenix is dry; Mangalore has wet/dry seasons.
  • As a final check of the climates at the locations, click on the symbol on the map and a set of information pops up that provides greater detail.

Printable Student View

Global Climate Assessment Chart

Place
Latitude 
(high, middle, low)
July Temperature
(hot, warm, 
cool, cold)
January Temperature
(hot, warm,
cool, cold)
Annual Precipitation
(wet, dry, 
wet/dry seasons)
     
     
     
 

Strategy 3

Research and Presentation Skills

Review the Koppen Climate Classification System with the students.

Printable Student View

Koppen Climate Classification

The Koppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world’s climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Koppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter.

A – Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius.

B – Dry Climates: with deficient precipitation during most of the year.

C – Moist Mid-latitude Climates: with Mild Winters.

D – Moist Mid-Latitude Climates: with Cold Winters.

E – Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers.

  1. Divide the class into five groups and assign each group a climatic region. Take the class to the computer lab to do additional research on their climatic region. This website is useful: www.physicalgeography.net.
  2. Have each group prepare a presentation to the class on why they should plan a visit to their area of world this summer. Have them prepare a travel brochure, which accurately reflects how people live in their area of the world using the following Criteria for Presentation:
    • The kind of vegetation they will see
    • The wildlife they will see
    • The kinds of houses they will see
    • The kind of food that might be available
    • The kind of recreation they might find
Check for Understanding

Following the presentations, ask the class to write a paragraph addressing the following question:

  • How does climate affect the way people live? Use examples from the presentations to support your thinking.
Activity 3 2017-09-27T20:28:47+00:00

Activity 2

Activity 2

Essential Question

What are the effects of latitude on climate?

Background

Latitude is the most important explanation of climate on Earth. Latitude is directly related to the amount of sunlight that arrives at the Earth’s surface and how long it continues to arrive. The equator is the lowest latitude and receives sunlight directly throughout the year. The Arctic Circle and North Pole, and their counterparts in the southern hemisphere, receive no direct sunshine on their surface. There are four other elements also, but none as important as latitude. They include altitude above sea level. The thinner atmosphere at higher elevations has fewer molecules per unit of air to intercept solar energy or to transfer energy from the sun.

Physical features, such as mountains, affect climate. Many mountain ranges have a wet, windward side, and a dry, leeward side. Wind is also an important influence on climate. In some places winds bring precipitation. In other places the wind acts as a dryer, withdrawing the moisture from the soil and plants. The winds mix the atmosphere between the tropics and the high latitudes, so that Earth has temperature and precipitation patterns that form climate regions.

Proximity to large water and land bodies is the fifth major influence on climate. Large bodies of water tend to warm slowly and then radiate their energy slowly. They serve as cooling agents in early summer and warming agents in winter. Landmasses tend to warm quickly and then radiate their energy quite quickly. A good example is a desert that heats up quickly during the day, but cools off quickly in the evening. Of all these influences, latitude north and south of the equator is globally the most important.

Instructional Strategies

Strategy 1

Cause and Effect

Have students read the following passages. They tell the story of two weather observers at different latitudes. One is from Finland and the other one is from Kenya. Their daily recordings of weather are important information in classifying the climate of each place.

Printable Student View

Recording the Weather at High Latitudes – Finland

In 1957, Mrs. Rikkinen was the weather observer at a small village in Finland. She went outside to the Stevenson Screen, a white box filled with thermometers and barographs with an anemometer top, every six hours throughout the day to record the weather conditions. In addition, she entered her observations of snow, rain, clear, partly cloudy, or overcast skies, etc. in a weather station logbook. Every month the logbook was sent to Helsinki, the capital, where it was entered in the national climate database for Finland. A copy of the data was then sent to the International Meteorological Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.

In 2004, Mrs. Rikkinin was still the weather observer. A new instrument box was near her house to replace the old one. It was filled with more modern equipment. Computer-operated instruments now read temperature, precipitation, wind, sunshine, air pollution, and ultra-violate rays from the Sun. The information is sent by radio signal to the national center in Helsinki. Today she records the weather conditions without having to step outside. That is unless it snows. Measuring snowfall is a regular task during Finland’s winter months. The chart shows the average temperatures over more than 40 years.

Jyvaskyla, Finland: Temperature (F) and Precipitation (Inches) Averages 

City
Location
Data
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
Jyvaskyla62N/26EAve. Temp151523344757605747382820
  Total Precip.1.71.21.21.31.62.33.13.62.52.22.31.9

Recording Weather in the Low Latitudes – Kenya

Far to the south of Finland on the African continent is Kenya. Mr. Kimosop records the information four times a day near Nairobi, Kenya. Here is a summary of the information he collected for the year 2002. His information was sent to the National Weather Service Office in Nairobi, and then to the World Meteorological Organization in Geneva. Here is how he summarized the information recorded during the year.

Nairobi, Kenya: Temperature (F) and Precipitation (Inches) Averages 

City
Location
Data
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
Nairobi1S/37EAve. Temp646566656361596063666463
  Total Precip.1.94.23.78.35.22.00.80.90.92.05.83.5

Connections to Math:

  • Calculate the total precipitation for the year for both places and record it (it is 39.2 inches for Kenya; 24.9 inches for Finland)
  • Calculate the difference between the warmest month in Finland and the average temperature in Kenya during the same month (it is 1 degree F).
  • Calculate the difference between the average temperature in February in Finland and the temperature during February in Kenya (it is 50 degrees F)

Cause and Effect:

Ask the students what the effects of latitude are on the differences between Finland and Kenya regarding:

  • precipitation (not very much, since both places receive more than 25 inches of precipitation. In Finland that is adequate to grow evergreen forests, while in Kenya it is adequate for grasslands with scattered trees.
  • temperature (50 degrees F. is a large difference in temperature between two places. For example, snow and ice would be present in Finland for most of the winter months, November – March.

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View
  1. Would it get colder or warmer as you travel from lower to higher latitudes, explain your answer?
 

Strategy 2

Application

Latitude and Climate Affect People’s Activities

People live and work in both Finland and Kenya. The climates are different because the places are at different latitudes on Earth. You are to play the role of persons working in each place. You are to use the temperature and precipitation chart to decide on how the climate is going to affect your work. People in many parts of the world have to adjust their daily work to weather conditions. Climate data does not tell you if it will rain certain day in November in Kenya. You know that it generally rains 5.8 inches during the month of November, so on some days it is going to rain. Will you or won’t you go to work?

The students may use resource books and the World Wide Web to research information that will help then associate climatic conditions with life roles. For example, freezing weather and precipitation in January in Finland will result in snow. That will make for icy roads and will affect the work of the Ambulance attendant. Write ideas and speculations in the chart below.

Printable Student View

What will my life be like during the year?

Role
Nairobi-Latitude:
Jyvaskyla-Latitude:
Ambulance Attendant  
Construction Worker-outside  
Airline Pilot  
Middle School Student  
National Park Ranger  

Scoring Guide

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View

The chart shows the annual average temperature for the coldest and warmest months for five cities in the United States.

Study the information and write a paragraph that states why the rule and table are in agreement; or why they disagree.

Temp/Precip
Duluth
Chicago
Nashville
Atlanta
Miami
Coldest Month1022384269 (Jan)
Warmest Month7078808082
Latitude47 N42 M36 N34 N26 N

Rule: Increasing latitude has the effect of decreasing temperatures on Earth. This effect is there if you increase latitude north or south.

Activity 2 2017-09-27T20:28:47+00:00

Activity 1

Activity 1

Essential Question

What is the difference between weather and climate?

Background

Weather is the day-to-day change in the state of the atmosphere, reflected by such statements as the weather is sunny today, or it is cloudy today. Climate is the long -term conditions of the atmosphere at a place, such as a desert. For example, Tucson is located in a desert climate. There is a slight chance it may rain on the day you visit, but most of the year it will be hot and dry, which are the long-term conditions of the climate. In Michigan in October people begin to prepare their homes and cars for very cold, snowy weather. They know the climate in winter brings cold temperatures. There may be some sunny, warm days, but overall the winter climate is cold.

This activity will help students understand the difference between weather and climate.

 

 

Instructional Strategies

Strategy 1

Concept Formation

Locate your school on a map of the United States. Ask students the location north of the equator in degrees (for example, Kalamazoo, MI is 42 degrees north).

Next, write the following questions on the board or an overhead transparency:

  • What was the weather like yesterday?
  • What is the weather like today?
  • Is the weather like this every day?

Use a website such as this one to talk about the difference between weather and climate: 
http://weather.about.com

  • What are some of the day-to-day changes that occur with the weather?
  • What descriptions do people in our community use to describe the weather?
  • What are some key characteristics associated with the term “weather”? What are some key characteristics associated with the term “climate”?

Provide a copy of the T-Chart to each student. Note that on the T-Chart the classification “day to day” is on the left side heading and “long term” is on the right side.

Have the students work in pairs, to classify the short-term changes in the weather. For example, it may rain one day and be sunny the next. That is a “short term condition.” A change from warm (70 degrees) to hot (80 degrees) from one day to the next is a “short term condition.” Each pair should write two additional day-to-day conditions on the left hand column of the T-Chart.

After the short-term conditions of the atmosphere (day to day) have been listed on the T-Chart, ask:

  • What months of the year do we wear warmer clothes than at other times?
  • Are the weather conditions here (where we live) the same on June 21 and December 21?
  • What are some of the long-term changes in temperature and precipitation that occur during the calendar year where we live? (Those changes may be related to sports, outdoor activities, traveling to school, high temperatures in summer, snow in winter, etc.)

Working in pairs, instruct the students to write two of the changes that occur in temperature and/or precipitation over time in the area of the United States where they live. Have them write these changes in the right hand side of the T-Chart. Encourage the students to use the terms temperature, precipitation and the names of the months or seasons in their statements.

At the bottom of the T-Chart beneath the columns have students write the word “Weather” beneath the left column, and beneath the right side have them write “Climate.”

Compare the day-to-day changes in the left column and the longer-term changes on the right column of the T-Chart.

 

Strategy 2

Graphic Organizers

Have students use the KWLH Chart to organize what they know about climate and weather and what they want to find out.

Use the NOAA Weather Map for the United States to learn more about weather in different part of the country: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/outlook_tab.html. Begin by selecting the National Map option in the menu along the top of the map.

Have the students work in pairs and follow these steps:

  1. Identify four places to be investigated for weather and write them on the KWLH Chart.
  2. What they want to find out about the weather at each place today.
  3. What the weather map told them about the weather and for what period of time (for example, for shorter than a day, for a day, for a week, etc.)
  4. How they can learn more about weather in other places using the URL.

Have students talk about the common features shown on most national weather maps. Discussion Questions:

  • Why is precipitation so important to show on a national weather map?
  • Why is temperature so important to show on a national weather map?

Check for Understanding

Printable Student View

Present the following short reading passage to the students.

Weather and Climate

The construction workers at the building were happy that “it was hot and dry here today.” One week ago they couldn’t work because “it was raining cats and dogs.” Some of the workers stated that “the wet weather is for the birds.” They would like to complete the building project during the “hot August days.” In this place, the people, plants, animals, and insects all expect August to be hot. June, July and August have the warmest months for the past 100 or more years. However, it will be different in January. Then it will be cold and windy. And, it is not that way just at this place in Iowa. It is like that in the Midwestern part of the United States: hot summer seasons and cold winter seasons.

  1. What terms are used to describe the day-to-day weather conditions in a place?
  2. What terms are used to describe the long-term weather conditions in a place?
  3. What are the phrases used in your home or in your town that describe the weather?
  4. What are the phrases used in your home or in your town that describes the climate?
  5. Based on the information you have, write a definition for weather and then write a definition for climate?
Activity 1 2017-09-27T20:28:46+00:00

Formative Assessment

Activity 3: Formative Assessment

This list contains ten role-play assessments. The students will be assigned one of the ten roles. Different students may address different questions. The emphasis should be not only on content, but also on research and communication skills which will be scored.

Printable Student View

Persons to role-play and assigned questions.

  1. You are President Nixon. Explain three reasons why you believe a more peaceful relationship with the Soviet Union is possible and desirable.
  2. You are President Nixon. Explain three reasons why you believe a more peaceful relationship with China is possible and desirable.
  3. You are Leonid Brezhnev, leader of the Communist Party and ruler of the Soviet Union during the 1970s. Explain three reasons why you believe a more peaceful relationship with the United States is possible and desirable.
  4. You are Deng Xiaoping, a major leader of Communist China during the late 1970s. Explain three reasons why you believe a more peaceful relationship with the United States is possible and desirable.
  5. You are a journalist whose assignment was the administration of Ronald Reagan. A new reporter has come to work at your magazine. She asks you how the policies of President Reagan toward the Soviet Union in the 1980s were different from those of Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Carter, presidents who had preceded Reagan. You want to be helpful with your answer. What will you tell her?
  6. You are a teacher who wants to explain to your junior high students how the détente of the 1970s was different from the Cold War competition of the 1950s and 1960s. What will you tell your students?
  7. You are asked to explain to some of your fellow students the costs and benefits of President Reagan’s approach toward the Soviet Union. What would you tell them?
  8. You are Mikhail Gorbachev, who was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the years 1985-1991. Some U.S. high school students ask you these three questions:
    1. What was “perestroika”?
    2. Give us two examples of specific actions you had the Soviet government take to carry out “perestroika.”
    3. Explain why you decided the policy of “perestroika” was important for the Soviet Union.
  9. You are the author of a junior high school history textbook. In the book you are given one page to describe how the Cold War came to an end. Write an outline of what you might say on that page, and follow that outline with a first draft of the text.

Scoring Guide

Formative Assessment 2017-09-27T20:28:50+00:00
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