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Work-Based Learning Terminology

Aspects of the Industry
Whenever possible, work-based learning opportunities for students should include instruction and experience in all aspects of the industry being explored. This is important to ensure that career and technical education teaches more than the skills needed for specific entry-level jobs. Providing students with understanding and experience is essential to empowering students to make career choices, preparing them to adapt to technological change, and equipping them to play an active part in economic development of their local communities. The following knowledge and skills are important components of studying all aspects of the industry:

  • Planning
  • Management
  • Finance
  • Technical and production skills
  • Underlying principles of Technology
  • Labor issues
  • Community issues
  • Health, safety, and enviromental issues

All Students
The term "all students" means both male and female students from a broad background including disadvantaged, diverse racial, ethnic or cultural backgrounds, disabled, limited English proficiency, migrant children, school dropouts, and academically talented students.

Apprenticeship
Programs that specifically meet federally approved standards designed to safegaurd the wellfare of apprentices

Articulation
Articulation is a planned process linking two or more educational systems to help students make a smooth transition from one level or program to another without experiencing delays or duplications of learning. This movement of students between programs can be either horizontal or vertical.

Horizontal Articulation includes those relationships between programs, courses, or activities which exist at any one educational competency level and provide a coordinated educational program for the students.

Vertical Articulation refers to those relationships which exist between institutions' programs, courses, or activities and provides a coordinated program for a student moving from one educational competency level to the next.

2+2 Articulation is a four-year plan in which the first two years are taught at the secondary level, and the second two years are taught at the postsecondary level. Exit points are included along the way which permit students to exit after grades twelve, thirteen, or fourteen with a diploma, certificate, or associate degree. 2+2 Articulation requires a highest degree of involvement, coordination and cooperation between and among administrators, faculty, and counselors.

2+2+2 Articulation is a six-year plan in which the first two years are taught at the secondary level, second two years at community, junior, or technical college, and third two years at a four-year college or university. Students exit with a diploma, associate degree, or bachelor's degree.

Intent to Articulate Agreement sets the stage for articulation to occur and establishes the ground rules. After this preliminary agreement has been signed the time-consuming but very crucial process of developing curriculum drawing boards can begin.

Program Articulation Agreement links educational programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels to help students make a smooth transition from one level or program to another without experiencing delays or duplication of learning. It formally solidifies specific responsibilities, roles, programs and courses between participating institutions. Curriculum drawing boards that show the articulated secondary-postsecondary sequence of courses agreed upon must be a part of this document.

Assessment
The process of measuring performance against a set of standards (through examination, practical tests, performance observation and/or the completion of portfolios of work and assignments).

Basic Skills
Academic and personal abilities that are necessary for success in school and the workplace

Career Academy
A school-within-a-school that offers students academic and career education programs organized around broad career themes.

Career and Technical Education (CTE)
Organized educational programs, services, and activities directly related to preparation of students for a career.

Career Development Continuum
Most people experience four overlapping stages in their career selection and preparation process: career awareness, career exploration, school site career preparation, and work site career applications.

Career Awareness focuses on group activities that help students develop a general awareness of themselves, the world of work and its connection to education. Activities are generally instituted in the elementary grades. Activities may include:

  • Career Fair/Career Day
  • Classroom Guest Speakers
  • Field Trips (Business/Industry Tours)

Career Exploration activities provide an opportunity for individual examination of career options that match a student's interests and aptitudes. They provide an opportunity for students to learn about what people do for a living and to observe and interact with work based staff to learn more about the demands of the work place. Activities may include:

  • Career Guidance and Counseling Services
  • Career Interviews
  • Job Shadowing
  • Research Papers/Projects

Career Preparation activities that integrate academic and occupational skills learned in the classroom with skills learned on the job prepare students for transitioning from school to a career. Emphasis is on skill building, understanding the concept of transferable skills, learning to work as a team member, establishing relationships, ethics and honesty, and relating personal interests and abilities to real world career opportunities. Many students also select a career interest or focus during this stage. Activities may include:

  • Applied Academics Courses
  • Career Academies
  • Entrepreneurship Projects/Classes
  • School Based Enterprises
  • Career Student Organization (CSO) Projects/Competition
  • Career and Technical Education Programs
  • Workplace Readiness Courses

Career Applications are competency-based educational experiences that occur at the workplace but are tied to the classroom by curriculum that coordinates and integrates school-site instruction with work site experiences. These structured work experiences provide students with the opportunity to apply the skills learned in the classroom in actual work environments and prepare students for the next step in their career development, whether it be a two-year or four-year college, apprenticeship, or career. Activities include:

  • Apprenticeship
  • Clinical Work Experience
  • Cooperative Education (COOP) / Diversified Occupations
  • Internship/Practicum
  • Mentorships
  • Part Time Work
  • Service Learning Projects
  • Work Experience Career Exploration Programs (WECEP)

Career Fair
An activity designed to help students think about their interest and abilities in relation to potential careers by exposure to people directly involved in the career.

Career Guidanec & Counseling
Programs that (1) provide career awareness, career planning, career decision-making information; (2) assist individuals in making and implementing informed educational and career choices and (3) the help students develop career options with regard to equity.

Career Clusters and Pathways
Careers that are grouped together because people in them share similar interests and strengths. All pathways include a variety of occupations that require different levels of education and training. Thus, career clusters/pathways provide a plan for ALL students regardless of their interests, abilities, talents, or desired levels of education. Selecting a career cluster/pathway provides students with an area of FOCUS, along with FLEXIBILITY and a VARIETY of ideas to pursue.

Certification
The provision of a certificate or award to individuals, indicating the attainment or enhancement of a skill, certain skills or knowledge, usually as a result of a training system that features modular components which build upon one other, and a competency-based assessment process.

Community College
The term "community college" has the meaning provided in section 1201(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 for an institution which provides not less than a two-year program which is acceptable for full credit toward a bachelor's degree and includes tribally controlled colleges or universities.

Competency
Indicates the ability to perform the activities within an occupation to the set standard. It may incorporate the ability to apply the relevant skills and knowledge to new situations within the occupational area as well as generic skills.

Core Competencies
Indicate capabilities for performing activities that are common across occupational areas and can be built upon during the span of career development.

Connecting Activities
Activities or programs that help link school and work-based educational programs.

Consortium
A group of schools and/or agencies that enter into a cooperative agreement to share information or provide services that benefit students.

Cooperative Education
A structured method of instruction allowing students to attend school and work in a career related field while earning credit for both.

Course Credit Options
Advanced Placement is any arrangement that enables secondary students to receive credit for or bypass requirements at the postsecondary level. These arrangements are keyed to "time shortened" periods since postsecondary credit is granted for accomplishments at the secondary level. Generally, advanced placement is optional for those students with high grade point averages or high scores on placement exams. Advanced placement is considered the easiest form of articulation because few curriculum changes are necessary.

Advanced Standing means that a student must still enroll in the college's course qualifying for advanced standing. Because the student has met one or more of the college's course competencies in the parallel high school program, the student will experience one or more of the following:

  • Student will be taught more advanced skills and problem solving leading to successful performance on certification tests.
  • Student may test out of a portion of the course resulting in a partial tuition waiver.
  • Student may waive a section or multiple sections of a course.
  • Student may receive partial or total waiver of required work experience.
  • Student may serve as teaching assistant to the instructor, developing supervisory skills.
  • Part Time Work

Dual Credit means that students receive both high school and college credit and a grade on their transcript for dual credit courses. High school dual credit courses must follow the same format as an on-campus course. The issues of dual credit is one that the high school has to determine. It is there option to allow the student to receive high school credit for a college course. A high school student taking a class, either on campus or off, is generally the same as any other student regarding payment for the class, books, etc.

Curriculum Integration
A method of teaching academic and career/technical occupational subjects showing the relationships among the disciplines.

Disability
Any individual meeting qualifications under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act.

Dropout
A student who leaves school before graduating.

Job Rotation
A periodic transfer through a wide variety of positions and tasks requiring different skills and responsibilities.

Job Shadowing
A career exploration activity for late middle school or early high school where the student follows the employee at a firm for one or more days to learn about an occupation or industry.

Mentors
A School Site Mentor is a professional employed by the school designated as the student advocate working in consultation with teachers, counselors and employers.

A Workplace Mentor is an employer or designated employee at a workplace who directs the student in mastery of employment skills.

Nontraditional Occupation and Employment
Refers to jobs and occupations in which women make up 25% or less of the total workers. Women Apprenticeship and Nontraditional Occupations Act.

On-the-Job-Training
Hands-on training in an occupational skill in the work-based curriculum.

Portfolio
A collection of work documenting a student's educational performance.

Postsecondary Education
Schools designed for students completing a secondary degree or GED including vocational, academic and continuing professional education purposes; excluding vocational and adult basic education programs.

Preparatory Services
Services, programs, or activities designed to assist individuals who are not enrolled in career and technical education programs in the selection of, or preparation for participating in, an appropriate career and technical education or training program, such as:

  • services, programs, or activities related to outreach to or recruitment of potential career and technical education students;
  • career guidance and counseling;
  • assessment and evaluation of interests, ability and skills; and
  • other appropriate services, programs, or activities.

Private Career Schools
Sometimes called proprietary schools, operated under private control, independently owned and operated a profit-making enterprise; usually designed around a specific career cluster.

SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills - February 1990)
Identified competencies needed for employment in the workplace; Competencies-Resources, Interpersonal Skills, Information, Systems, Technology; Foundations-Basic Skills, Thinking Skills, Personal Qualities.

Service Learning
An instructional method combining community service and academic learning.

Skill
A combination of perceptual, motor, manual, intellectual social abilities. The nature of tasks usually requires a combination of these and usually also requires the application of cognitive and psychomotor functions together with appropriate knowledge. Skill is cumulative (it is built up gradually with repeated practice), and sequential (each part is dependent on the previous part and influences the next).

Skill Certificate
An industry recognized credential certifying the holder has demonstrated mastery of a core set of content and performance standards related to a specific occupational cluster.

Skill Standard
The identification of the knowledge, skill and level of ability needed to satisfactorily perform a given job. These standards may be specific to a given occupation, cross occupational lines or apply to groupings of occupations. This concept of skill standards can be tailored to any industry to reflect its particular needs and economic environment.

Special Populations
Individuals with disabilities, individuals from economically disadvantaged families (including foster children), individuals preparing for nontraditional training and employment, single parents (including single pregnant women), displaced homemakers and individuals with other barriers to educational achievement (including individuals with limited English proficiency).

Work Based Learning
Work based learning takes place at both the work site and school site and is an initiative to make lifelong career development easier and more natural by linking learning at school to application of learning at the work site.

Work Based Learning Coordinator
An individual to oversee components of a work based learning system including school based learning, work based learning and connecting activities.

Youth Apprenticeship
A multi-year program combining school and work-based learning in a specific occupational area designed to lead directly into either a related postsecondary program, entry level job as registered apprenticeship program.