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National Healthcare Foundation Standards & Accountability Criteria

Accountability criteria have been established for each foundation standard to better define the
expectations for meeting the standard and to provide content for curriculum design and measurement and certification of achievement.

Foundation Standard 1: Academic Foundation

Healthcare professionals will know the academic subject matter required for proficiency within their area. They will use this knowledge as needed in their role. The following accountability criteria are considered essential for students in a health science program of study.

Accountability Criteria
1.1 Human Structure and Function
1.11 Classify the basic structural and functional organization of the human body including chemical, cellular, tissue, organ,
and system
1.12 Recognize body planes, directional terms, quadrants, and cavities
1.13 Analyze the interdependence of the basic structures and functions of the human body as they relate to wellness,
disease, disorders, therapies, and care/rehabilitation
1.14 Compare the structure and function of the human body across the lifespan
1.2 Diseases and Disorders
1.21 Compare diseases/disorders including respective classification(s), prevention, causes, pathogenesis, diagnoses,
therapies, and care/rehabilitation
1.22 Investigate biomedical therapies as they relate to the prevention, pathology, and treatment of disease
1.23 Discuss complementary/alternative health practices as they relate to the prevention and treatment of disease
1.3 Medical Mathematics
1.31 Apply mathematical computations related to healthcare procedures
1.32 Apply mathematical principles to conversion equations used in the healthcare delivery system
1.33 Apply mathematical principles involving temperature, weights, and measures used in the healthcare delivery system
1.34 Apply mathematical principles to problems involving dosage calculations and other applied mathematical concepts
1.35 Analyze diagrams, charts, graphs, and tables to interpret healthcare results

Foundation Standard 2: Communications

Healthcare professionals will know the various methods of giving and obtaining information. They will communicate effectively, both orally and in writing.

Accountability Criteria

2.1 Concepts of Effective Communication
2.11 Identify styles and types of verbal and nonverbal communication
2.12 Classify communication styles based on various healthcare scenarios
2.13 Recognize barriers to communication
2.14 Recognize resources to assist in overcoming communication barriers
2.15 Report relevant information in order of occurrence
2.16 Analyze communications for appropriate response and feedback
2.17 Interpret verbal and non-verbal communication
2.18 Report subjective and objective information
2.19 Use medical terminology to communicate information including data and observations
2.2 Oral Communications Skills
2.21 Recognize the elements of oral communication using a sender-receiver process
2.22 Apply speaking and active listening skills using reflection, restatement, and clarification techniques
2.3 Written Communication Skills
2.31 Recognize the elements of written communication
2.32 Organize technical information and summaries

Foundation Standard 3: Systems

Healthcare professionals will understand how their role fits into their department, their organization and the overall healthcare environment. They will identify how key systems affect services they perform and quality of care.

Accountability Criteria
3.1 Healthcare Delivery Systems

3.11 Understand systems theory as it relates to a healthcare delivery system model
3.12 Explain the cause and effect of factors influencing various healthcare delivery systems
3.13 Summarize the interdependence of healthcare professions within a given healthcare delivery system
3.14 Interpret the various roles of healthcare providers and clients within the healthcare system
3.15 Explain the impact of 21st century emerging issues such as technology, epidemiology, bioethics, and socioeconomics on healthcare systems

Foundation Standard 4: Employability Skills

Healthcare professionals will understand how employability skills enhance their employment opportunities and job satisfaction. They will demonstrate key employability skills and will maintain and upgrade skills, as needed.

Accountability Criteria
4.1 Personal Traits of the Healthcare Professional

4.11 Classify the personal traits or attitudes desirable in a member of the healthcare team
4.12 Summarize basic professional standards of the healthcare workers as they apply to hygiene, dress, language,
confidentiality and behavior (i.e. courtesy and self-introductions)
4.2 Key Employability Skills
4.21 Apply key employability skills in a healthcare setting
4.22 Exemplify professional characteristics
4.23 Engage in continuous self-assessment and career goal modification for personal and professional growth
4.3 Career Decision-making
4.31 Compare potential health science career pathways using a variety of health careers within the diagnostic services,
therapeutic services, health informatics services, support services, or biotechnology research and development
4.32 Recognize levels of education, credentialing requirements, employment opportunities, workplace environments, and
career growth potential for a service area
4.4 Employability Preparation
4.41 Develop components of a professional portfolio
4.42 Execute work assignments and formulate solutions to problems using critical thinking skills
4.43 Demonstrate respectful and empathetic interactions with diverse age, cultural, economic, ethnic, and religious groups in various settings

Foundation Standard 5: Legal Responsibilities

Healthcare professionals will understand the legal responsibilities, limitations, and implications of their actions within the healthcare delivery setting. They will perform their duties according to regulations, policies, laws and legislated rights of clients.

Accountability Criteria
5.1 Legal Implications

5.11 Understand legal responsibilities and limitations
5.12 Analyze implications of actions
5.13 Implement problem solving techniques when confronted with legal issues
5.14 Explain practices that could result in malpractice, liability, and/or negligence
5.15 Apply procedures for accurate documentation and record keeping
5.16 Implement established procedures based on risk management criteria
5.17 Understand an incident report
5.18 Summarize non-discriminatory laws
5.19 Interpret healthcare facility policies and procedures
5.2 Legal Practices
5.21 Implement mandated standards for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
5.22 Recognize common threats to confidentiality
5.23 Summarize clients’ rights according to the Patients’ Bill of Rights
5.24 Understand informed consent

5.25 Compare licensure, certification, registration, and legislated scope of practice of a healthcare professional
5.26 Explain mandated standards for harassment, labor, and employment laws

Foundation Standard 6: Ethics

Healthcare professionals will understand accepted ethical practices with respect to cultural, social, and ethnic differences within the healthcare environment. They will perform quality healthcare delivery.

Accountability Criteria
6.1 Legal and Ethical Boundaries

6.11 Differentiate between morality and ethics
6.12 Differentiate between ethical and legal issues impacting healthcare including confidentiality
6.13 Compare personal, professional, and organizational ethics
6.14 Recognize ethical issues and their implications related to healthcare
6.2 Ethical Practice
6.21 Apply ethical behaviors including honesty and integrity in a healthcare setting
6.22 Apply procedures for reporting activities and behaviors that affect the health, safety and welfare of others
6.3 Cultural, Social, and Ethnic Diversity
6.31 Understand religious and cultural values as they impact healthcare services
6.32 Demonstrate respect for individual diversity

Foundation Standard 7: Safety Practices
Healthcare professionals will understand the existing and potential hazards to clients, co-workers, and self. They will prevent injury or illness through safe work practices and follow health and afety policies and procedures.

Accountability Criteria
7.1 Infection Control
7.11 Apply infection control procedures including standard precautions
7.12 Compare the different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms
7.2 Personal Safety
7.21 Apply personal safety procedures based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Center for Disease Control (CDC) regulations
7.22 Apply proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
7.23 Apply principles of body mechanics and ergonomics
7.3 Environmental Safety
7.31 Evaluate the environment to recognize safe and unsafe working conditions
7.32 Demonstrate methods of fire prevention in the healthcare setting
7.33 Understand proper safety techniques to prevent accidents and to maintain a safe work environment
7.4 Common Safety Hazards
7.41 Recognize Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
7.42 Comply with safety signs, symbols, and labels
7.43 Understand implications of hazardous materials
7.44 Apply safety principles within given environments
7.5 Emergency Procedures and Protocols
7.51 Explain an evacuation plan for a healthcare setting
7.52 Execute an emergency plan in response to a natural disaster or other emergency

Foundation Standard 8: Teamwork

Healthcare professionals will understand the roles and responsibilities of individual members as part of the
healthcare team, including their ability to promote the delivery of quality healthcare. They will interact effectively and sensitively with all members of the healthcare team.

Accountability Criteria
8.1 Healthcare Teams

8.11 Understand interdisciplinary roles of team members
8.12 Recognize characteristics of effective teams
8.13 Classify responsibilities of various team members
8.2 Team Member Participation

8.21 Recognize methods for building positive team relationships
8.22 Respect and value the expertise and contributions of all team members
8.23 Analyze the attributes and attitudes of an effective leader
8.24 Recognize underlying factors and situations that may lead to conflict
8.25 Apply effective techniques for handling team conflict

Foundation Standard 9: Health Maintenance Practices

Healthcare professionals will understand the fundamentals of wellness and the prevention of disease processes.  They will practice preventive health behaviors among the clients.

Accountability Criteria
9.1 Healthy Behaviors
9.11 Apply behaviors that promote health and wellness
9.12 Describe strategies for the prevention of diseases including health screenings and examinations
9.13 Apply practices that promote the prevention of disease and injury
9.14 Apply appropriate safety practices as related to high-risk behaviors
9.15 Discuss complementary/alternative health practices as they relate to wellness and disease prevention

*Foundation Standard 10: Technical Skills

Healthcare professionals will apply technical skills required for all career specialties. They will demonstrate skills and knowledge as appropriate.

Accountability Criteria
10.1 Technical Skills

10.11 Apply procedures for measuring and recording vital signs including the normal ranges
10.12 Apply skills to obtain training or certification in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)/Automated External Defibrillator
(AED)/Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO)/First Aid
*Additional technical skills may be included in a program of study based on career specialties

Foundation Standard 11: Information Technology Applications

Healthcare professionals will use information technology applications required within
all career specialties. They will demonstrate use as appropriate to healthcare applications.

Accountability Criteria
11.1 Health Information Management

11.11 Identify records and files common to the healthcare setting
11.12 Execute data management using electronic healthcare records
11.13 Interpret information from electronic medical documents
11.14 Understand the content and diverse uses of health information
11.2 Information Technology
11.21 Implement communications using technology (i.e. Fax, E-mail, and Internet) to access and distribute data and other
11.22 Execute the use of software, hardware, and the Internet
11.23 Recognize computer applications currently being used in today's healthcare setting

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